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耶利米书第五十二章

 

Ⅸ 附录:耶城的陷落(五十二1-34

本章既非耶利米的信息,也不是有关他的生平与职事。这是本书的附录,记述耶路撒冷城陷落的史事。除廿八至三十节外,几乎与列王纪下廿四章十八节至廿五章三十节相同。本章十至十一节,将列王纪下廿五章七节详加解释。廿一至廿三节,也将列王纪下廿五章十七节加以注解。516至于廿八至三十节,可能有其它的来源,将三次被掳的人数加以记录。

本书取材于列王纪,也有先例可援,以赛亚书卅六章一节至卅九章八节,取于列王纪下十八章十三节至二十章十九节。在列王纪下十九、二十节特别提说以赛亚。但是耶利米虽引用列王纪下,但列王纪下廿四、廿五章并未提说耶利米。

本章确加添了若干资料。列王纪下廿五章七节:“在西底家眼前杀了他的众子,并且剜了西底家的眼睛,用铜炼锁着他,带到巴比伦去。”在本章十至十一节:“巴比伦王在西底家眼前,杀了他的众子,又在利比拉杀了犹大的一切首领,并且剜了西底家的眼睛,用铜炼锁着他。”在此处想到地名利比拉,又提到犹大的一切首领与他的众子一起被杀,与耶利米书卅九章六、七节的叙述也极为相同,但在五十二章十一节下加了一句:“将他囚在监里,直到他死的日子。”

五十二章七至十六节,与卅九章四至十节相同,而后者在七十士译本簻O省略的。可见其编辑的过程。

五十二章卅一节记述约雅斤被释,照列王纪下廿四章八节,他在首次被掳的人批中,那时约在主前597年,他才十八岁。现在他被掳后三十七年,算起来有五十四、五岁。他一直留在巴比伦,“直到他死的日子”。可见本章是在他死后写的,写作的时间相当迟了。

廿八至三十节既是本章所附加的,也是最迟写作的,对史事作一总结,而本章又自成一单元。517

 

516 John Gray, I II Kings, 1970, 751-754, 773.

517 参阅历史书的资料,Jay A. Wilcoxen, "Narrative", Old Testament Form Criticism, ed. John H. Hayes, 1974, 74-75.

 

一、城已亡、王被掳(五十二1-16

本段实际可分为三小段:(1)西底家在位的史事(1-2节)。(2)耶城陷落,王的厄运(4-11节)。(3)耶城众民之厄运(12-16节)。

第五十二章一至二节 “西底家登基的时候,年二十一岁,在耶路撒冷作王一年。他母亲名叫哈慕他,是立拿人耶利米的女儿。西底家行耶和华眼中看为恶的事,是照约雅敬一切所行的。”

在历史书列王的年代表,不仅记载登基的年岁,以及作王的年数,也提说王的母亲。在犹大的王室,一直是大·的后裔,甚至外邦立犹大王,也只有在大·家挑选。西底家是约雅斤的叔父,现在成为傀儡王,仍出身自大·王。母后的身分就十分重要了。西底家的母亲为哈慕他,也可音译为哈米他(Hamital而非Hamtu^l,后者为叙利亚译本的读法)。“哈米”可译为“我的姻亲”,即丈夫的父亲,“他”(亚兰文tal)为“避处”,实际用意并不清楚。她的父亲是耶利米,当然不是先知耶利米,因为他是立拿人。立拿是滨海平原的沙非拉。518另外还有一位耶利米,记载在卅五章三节,中文译为“雅利米雅”,与先知耶利米同名。

西底家行耶和华眼中看为恶的事,通常在历史书中,必比较先王所行的恶事。所以此处是:“照约雅敬一切所行的。”由于约雅敬为埃及的附庸,而西底家是巴比伦的附庸,二者可以同列在昏君之类别中。

在论犹大王室的恶行,十五章四节提到玛拿西。神的刑罚不能幸免,此处西底家也必同样被神弃绝,可参考卅七章一至二节。玛拿西的恶行祸及约雅敬,而约雅敬的恶行祸及西底家,可参考列王纪下廿四章三节及十九节。

第五十二章三节 “因此,耶和华的怒气在耶路撒冷和犹大发作,以致将人民从自己的面前赶出。”

耶和华的怒气已经发作,对象是在耶路撒冷及犹大。这句话的文法结构稍为特别,因为这可有两种不同的涵义:神的怒气因耶路撒冷和犹大而发作。或作:神的怒气使耶路撒冷和犹大情况恶化,即神的怒气发作之后,他们就受灾祸。参考卅二章廿四节,用语类似,那里的主词是敌人,而此处是耶和华的怒气。519

在神面前赶出,表明不再得着耶和华的眷顾,神已完全弃绝他们,不再与他们同在。

第五十二章四至六节 “西底家背叛巴比伦王。他作王第九年十月初十日,巴比伦王尼布甲尼撒率领全军来攻击耶路撒冷,对城安营,四围筑垒攻城,于是城被围困,直到西底家王十一年,四月初九日,城里有大饥荒,甚至百姓都没有粮食。”

在卅九章一至二节已经叙述,巴比伦军队筑垒攻城的事,可参考本书六章六节及卅二章廿四节,他们以土堆作防齱A就以桥头堡的据点向城攻击。

大饥荒的严重情形,在卅七章廿一节也有说明。百姓不仅指城内的,也指四乡逃来的难民,灾情实在可怕。

第五十二章七至十一节 “城被攻破,一切兵丁就在夜间从靠近王园两城中间的门,出城逃跑。迦勒底人正在四围攻城,他们就往亚拉巴逃去。迦勒底的军队追赶西底家王,在耶利哥的平原追上他,他的全军都离开他四散了。迦勒底人就拿住王,带他到哈马地的利比拉巴比伦王那里。巴比伦王就审判他。巴比伦王在西底家眼前,杀了他的众子,又在利比拉杀了犹大的一切首领,并且剜了西底家的眼睛,用铜炼锁着他,带到巴比伦去,将他囚在监里,直到他死的日子。”

七至十一节上,已在卅九章四至七节记述了。十一节下,“将他囚在监里”,在七十士译本作“磨房”,因为囚犯多关在磨房内推磨操作。推磨原是妇女的工作,所以叫囚犯推磨,是存心羞辱他,好似士师参孙的惨状一样(士十六21)。

最近曾有考古发现,在阿比拉(Ebla),有一磨坊,其内有十六座磨,那未必是囚犯工作的地方。但至少可以说明磨坊规模之大,可作参考。520

犹大王约雅斤与西底家同时在被掳之地,但他们的遭遇不同。约雅斤以后得释。但西底家被囚禁至死,而且瞎眼受苦,极为难堪。

第五十二章十二节 “巴比伦王尼布甲尼撒十九年五月初十日,在巴比伦王面前侍立的护·长尼布撒拉旦进入耶路撒冷。”

这是十九年,但在列王纪下廿五章八节,为十八年。可能后者较为正确。耶路撒冷城陷落,是在主前587年七月,即巴比伦日历的四月(6节)。一个月之后,护·长尼布撒拉旦才来到耶城,督促毁城的事。

第五十二章十三至十五节 “用火焚烧耶和华的殿和王宫,又焚烧耶路撒冷的房屋,就是各大户家的房屋。跟从护·长迦勒底的全军,就拆毁耶路撒冷四围的城墙。那时护·长尼布撒拉旦将民中最穷的,和城里所剩下的百姓,并已经投降巴比伦王的人,以及大众所剩下的人都掳去了。”

这几节经文,可参考卅九章八、九节。

毁城的事实在非常彻底,将精华的建筑物:圣殿、王宫及大户大家的华屋都焚毁。城墙拆毁,城的用途全都废除,从此那圣城只成为一个乡野,没有保障,不再是京城,国家完全败亡。

城门除了最穷的人以外全都掳去,剩下的人必更无生计,更加贫穷了。这在卅九章九节有所说明。此处似指所有的人包括最穷的,似与事实不符。但在下一节有一交代,那些最穷的人并未被掳去。

第五十二章十六节 “但护·长尼布撒拉旦留下些民中最穷的,使他们修理葡萄园,耕种田地。”

犹大的精英经两次掳掠,一次在主前597年,另一次就在主前587年,败亡的时候,耶城告陷。现在剩下的,是社会中低下阶层的人,是民中最穷的。他们需要存活,需要有工作。因为许多葡萄园与田地的主人已经被掳,田园荒废了,需要雇用工人。

“耕种田地”的用字,似指那些为公家服务的农工。本来有些田地是属公家的,是那些梯田,从那些田地出产的,常是极好的产品,为出口之用的,有新酒及油,质量良好。521

 

518 Richard W. Corney, "Librah", The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, 3, 123.

519 William L. Holladay, Jeremiah 2, 440.

520 Lorenzo Vigano and Dennis Pardee, "Literary Sources for the History of Palestine and Syria the Ebla Tablets", The Biblical Archaeologists, 47 (1984) 9.

521 J.N. Graham, "Vinedressers and Plowman," 2 King's 25:12 and Jeremiah 52:16", The Biblical Archaeologist 47 (1984), 55-58.

 

二、圣殿被掳掠一空(五十二17-23

第五十一章十七节 “耶和华殿的铜柱,并殿内的盆座,和铜海,迦勒底人都打碎了,将那铜运到巴比伦去了。”

本节可比较列王纪下廿五章十三节。在所罗门的圣殿里,共有铜柱两条,记载在列王纪上七章十五至廿二、四十一、四十二节以及历代志下三章十五至十七节,四章十二、十三节。这铜柱的功用有两种说法,可作建筑物的支柱,也只作宗教的象征。522

铜海是为洁净用的水盆,在推罗制作,也为所罗门建造圣殿的一项设备(王上七24;王下十六7),相当于会幕中的洗濯盆(出三十18)。在所罗门圣殿中的铜海,面积为七呎半高,直径十五呎。下面有十二只铜在四方作为托脚,每一方为三只。在亚哈斯王的时候,铜牛以石牛替代。但是这偌大的铜盆被巴比伦军队掠去。523由于面积大,所以都打碎了,再运往巴比伦。

第五十二章十八至十九节 “又带去锅、铲子、蜡剪、盘子、铜羹,并所用的一切铜器、杯、火鼎、碗盆、灯台、调羹、爵,无论金的、银的,护·长也都带去了。”

锅为煮祭肉之用,在一章十三节的用词相同。铲子为铲煤、木柴的灰。在以赛亚书廿八章十七节:“階h”,原意为“铲除”,是同一个用字。524

蜡剪也可作叉肉之用,盘子为盛祭牲的血,可参考列王纪下十六章十三节。调羹为盛香之用。525

杯原意为碗,火鼎为铲煤,碗盆也是为盛祭牲之血,与上节(18节)的盆相同。“灯台”可参考廿五章十节。“爵”的用途不甚清楚,在犹太拉比的解释,这是为放陈设饼的。526在七十士译本与拉丁文译本作“酒杯”,中文译词可能依据这译词,可能作奠祭之用。527

“金的银的”,照文法的结构,重复有加重语气的作用。这些金银可能是上等的,在此特别提出。

第五十二章二十节 “所罗门为耶和华殿所造的两根铜柱,一个铜海,并座下的十二只铜牛,这一切的铜,多得无法可称。”

此处提及铜牛,但列王纪下廿五章十六节并未提说。事实上,亚哈斯王为向亚述进贡,已经将铜牛除去,以石牛替代。所以一般解经家认为这可能是编者所忽略的。但是铜海与铜柱的铜确实已经不少,多得无法可称,都被掳去。圣殿可说是完全拆毁了。

第五十二章廿一至廿三节 “这一根柱子高十八肘,厚四指,是空的,围十二肘,柱上有铜顶,高五肘。铜顶的周围有网子和石榴,都是铜的。那一根柱子照此一样,也有石榴,柱子四面有九十六个石榴,在网子周围,共有一百石榴。”

“肘”通常是指由手臂的弯处量至中指尖,约为半公呎。这铜柱的高度约为九公尺,或三十英呎。周围十二肘,原意为一根量绳的单位为十二肘,正好是周围的尺寸。此处提说幅度与周围,在列王纪下廿五章十七节并未提及。有关周围的面积,在列王纪上七章十五节有记载。厚度也记载在七十士译本,列王纪上七章十五节,希腊文为第三节。十二肘为一点九公尺,即六英呎以上。四指应为三英吋左右。

铜顶有五肘,适合铜柱卅肘的高度。而十八肘的高度,可能三肘的铜顶较为合宜,因此经学家对这一点有不同的见解。528

铜顶的周围有网子,这是类似栏杆的样式,可参考列王纪下一章二节。

石榴作为装饰,犹如以弗得的衣袍(出廿八33)。照列王纪上七章二十、四十二节,石榴分作的两排,每排一百。

铜柱铜海都打碎带走,但许多用具仍未破坏,掳去后被误用,如在但以理书五章二至四节。以后也被归还(代下卅六18;斯一7)。

 

522 G.A. Barrais, "Pillar", The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, 3, 815-816.

523 Joseph L. Mibelic, "Sea, Molten", The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, 4, 253.

524 Josephi L. Mibelic, "Shovel", The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, 4, 340, "Snuffers", 4, 394.

525 Marcus Jastrow, A Dictionary of the Targumtm, the Talmud Babli and Yerusalmi, and Midrashic Literature, 1903, 657a. Joseph L. Mihelic, "Firepan", The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, 2, 270. Lawrence E . Toombs, " Lampstand", The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible 3, 64-66.

526 Jastrow, op. cit., 3, 802b.

527 William L. Holladay, Jeremiah 2, 422.

528 Holladay, Jeremiah 2, 442.但大多主张为五肘,参考James A. Montgomery, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Kings, 1957, 568, John Gray, I II Kings, 1970, 768.

 

三、被掳人数的细表(五十二24-30

第五十二章廿四至廿五节 “护·长拿住大祭司西莱雅,副祭司西番亚,和三个把门的。又从城中拿住一个管理兵丁的官。并在城里所遇常见王面的七个人,和检点国民军长的书记,以及城里所遇见的国民六十个人。”

大祭司西莱雅,不是四十章八节的军事长官,也不是五十一章五十九、六十一节巴录的兄弟。这位大祭司是希勒家的孙子(代上六1314)。在约西亚王宗教改革时,圣殿中发现律法书,希勒家便是当时的大祭司。

“把门的”在卅五章四节已经提说,并加解释。

管理兵丁的官,或作“太监”。“太监”在廿九章一节已有说明。此处是监督军人的官员。

常见王面的人,是宫廷中的议会,可参考以斯帖记一章十四节,波斯国也有七个大臣,为王的咨询顾问。

检点国民军长的书记,也是军中的要职。国民六十人大概不是军人,所以不是战斗的军人也同样遭殃。

第五十二章廿六至廿七节 “护·长尼布撒拉旦将这些人带到利比拉巴比伦王那里。巴比伦王就把他们击杀在哈马地的利比拉。这样,犹大人被掳去离开本地。”

以上提说的七十四人,可能是在宫中留守的,或者他们当时无法逃脱,终于被捕。他们在尼布甲尼撒王盛怒之下,终于在巴勒士坦的巴比伦军营中被审处死。这样,巴比伦确已控制整个的局面,乱平之后,被掳的人们到巴比伦去,就结束这场战争。

以下再附记被掳之人数,列出一张细表,作为参考,使这历史的记载告一段落。

第五十二章廿八至三十节 “尼布甲尼撒所掳的民数记在下面:在他第七年掳去犹大人三千零二十三名。尼布甲尼撒十八年,从耶路撒冷掳去八百三十二人,尼布甲尼撒二十三年,护·长尼布撒拉旦掳去犹大人七百四十五名,共有四千六百人。”

这里是数点被掳的人数。被掳的民与被掳的犹大人是相同的,并无特殊的分别。被掳的日期有三次,第一次是耶路撒冷城首先被巴比伦军队围困而被攻取,为主前5987)年。第二次为耶城陷落,犹大败亡,在主前587年。第三次是在主前582年。

第一次被掳,人数为三千零廿三名。在列王纪下廿四章十四节,人数为一万人,在十六节为八千人。人数的差别原因,有不同的解释。一万人可能包括妇女与孩童;除专门技术人员之外,八千人也包括他们的眷属。但此处三千余名只是男丁。529另一种解释是,人数以分批计算,因为掳掠的事不是一次,而是分数次进行。所以第一次被掳中,也分几次几批进行。530

第二次被掳是在主前587年,此次记载尼布甲尼撒十八年,但十二节为十九年,也有一年之差别。

第三次被掳是在主前582年,但此处并无清楚的记载,参考四十一章一至三节,可能是为基大利被刺杀的事。但是这事件究竟是在主前587年秋季发生呢?还是四年之后呢?照经文的记载,似乎在败亡当年的秋天,但是为什么在四年之后又会有再一次的掳掠?这确是难解的问题,有待继续的研究。

 

529 James Montgomery, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Kings, 1951, 556.

530 Abraham Malamat, "The Twilight of Judah", Congress volume, Edinburgh 1974, 123-145, esp. 134.

 

四、约雅斤被释出狱(五十二31-34

第五十二章卅一至卅四节 “犹大王约雅斤被掳后三十七年,巴比伦王以未米罗达元年,十二月二十五日,使犹大王约雅斤指抬头,提他出监又对他说恩言,使他的位高过与他一同在巴比伦众王的位。给他服了囚服,他终身在巴比伦王面前吃饭。巴比伦王赐他所需用的食物,日日赐他一分,终身是这样,直到他死的日子。”

以未米罗达,为尼布甲尼撒之子,继承他作王。他的名字原意为马杜克之子(根据亚甲文Amil-Marduk),马杜克是巴比伦的神明。他只作王两年,由他姐夫接续,那人名为尼甲沙利薛(卅九3)。他给予约雅斤特赦,提他出狱,使他抬头,就是恢复他的声望(参创四十13)。

约雅斤的地位高过与他一同在巴比伦众王的位,谁是那些王呢?他们也是被掳的,没有说明他们的国族。约雅斤终身在巴比伦王面前吃饭,是在以未米罗达王两年的时间,还是也包括尼甲沙利薛王?他的一生所经历的不仅只这两位王,他的生命比他们更长久。

两次提到终身,他不再在苦难之中,他的食物有固定的日常的供给,表明他没有缺乏,在物质方面也甚丰富。他能经得起囚禁的困苦生活,也能在释放之后,继续适应异地的环境。

本章作为本书的附录,是一个较为乐观的结语。被掳的君王终于被释。在巴比伦的犹大被掳者的前景也转好。尼布甲尼撒王死后,情形一定会好转。第九节尼布甲尼撒审判西底家,卅二节以未米罗达对约雅斤说恩言,这两节就成了很尖锐的对比。这里也显示应有的均衡,反映出这两个犹大末期君王,一个处于劣势,一个得到较佳的待遇,两者取得了平衡。所以本书的结语是佳况,给予安慰与鼓励。

约雅斤被释,给予另一种希望,就是大·家的复兴,这是列王纪十分注意的君王神学。耶和华既应许大·家永久的王位,这应许必然实现。约雅斤这位大·家的后嗣仍然活着,而且生活得甚好。耶和华的应许没有落实,531在指望中可以释然了。

关于西底家的命运怎样呢?本书没有交代。耶利米的信息,主要在于耶路撒冷的败亡以及西底家王的灭亡(卅八1718)。所以末朝君王的逝去,成为本书的结束。在这附录,耶利米不再出现,他到埃及之后的动态,也没有提说。神的工人会过去,神的工作不会过去,祂的话语必永远长存。

 

531 J.D. Levenson, "The Last Four Verses of Kings", Journal of Biblical Literature, 103 (1984) 153-161.

 

参考书目

        I. Commentaries 注释{\LinkToBook:TopicID=346,Name=I. Commentaries 註釋}

        II. Books and Articles 书刊及短文{\LinkToBook:TopicID=347,Name=II. Books and Articles 書刊及短文}

I. Commentaries 注释

Blayney, B. Jeremiah and Lamentations: a new Translation with Notes, critical, philological and explanatory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1784.

Bright, J. Jeremiah: A New Translation, with Introduction and Commentary, (Anchor Bible 21). Garden City: Doubleday Company, 1965.

Condamin, A. Le Livre de Je*re*mie: Traduction et Commentaire (E*tudes Bibliques). Paris: J. Gadalda et Cie, 1936.

Cornill, C.H. Das Buch Jeremia. Leipzig: Chr. Herm, Tauchnitz, 1905.

Cunliffe-Jones, H. The Book of Jeremiah: Introduction and Commentary, (The Torch Bible Commentaries). London: SCM Press, 1960.

Driver, S.R. The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah. London: Hodder Stoughton, 1906.

Duhm, B. Das Buch Jeremia (Kurzer Hand-Commentar zum Alten Testament XI). Tu/bingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1901.

Feinberg, C.L. Jeremiah: A Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1982.

Freedman, H. Jeremiah: Hebrew Text and English Translation with an Introduction and Commentary (Soncino Books of the Bible). New York: The Soncino Press, 1949.

Freehof, S.B. Book of Jeremiah: A Commentary (The Jewish Commentary for Bible Readers). New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1977.

Giesebrecht, F. Das Buch Jeremia (Handkommentar zum Alten Testament III, 2.1). Go/ttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1894.

Harrison, R.K. Jeremiah and Lamentations: An Introduction and Commentary (Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries). London: The Tyndale Press, 1973.

Hitzig, F. Der Prophet Jeremia (Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch zum Alten Testament). Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1866.

Holladay, William L. Jeremiah 1: A Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Jeremiah Chapters 1-25 (Hermeneia-A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible). Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986.

Hyatt, J.P. "The Book of Jeremiah: Introduction and Exegesis", The Interpreter's Bible V, 775-1142, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1956.

McKane, William. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Jeremiah (The International Critical Commentary). Edinburgh: T. T. Clark, 1986.

Leslie, E.A. Jeremiah: Chronologically arranged, translated. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1954.

Nicholson, E.W. The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah (The Cambridge Bible Commentary: New English Bible). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

No/tscher, F. Das Buch Jeremias(Die Heilige Schrift des Alten Testaments 7:2). Bonn: Peter Hanstein Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1934.

Peake, A.S. Jeremiah and Lamentations: I Jeremiah I-XXIV (The Century Bible). London: T.C. and E.C. Jack, 1910.

Rothstein, J.W. "Das Buch Jeremia", Die Heitige Schrift des Alten Testaments I, 671-813, ed. E. Kautzsch. Tu/bingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1909.

Rudolph, W. Jeremia (Handbuch zem Alten Testaments I, 12). Tu/bingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1968.

Thompson, J.A. The Book of Jeremiah (The New International Commentary on the Old Testament). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1980.

Volz, P. Der Prophet Jeremiah (Kommentar zum Alten Testaments X). Leipzig: Deichertsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1922.

Weiser, A. Das Buch des Propheten Jeremia (Das Alten Testaments Duetsch: Neues Gottinger Bibelwerk 20/21). Go/ttinger: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1960.

 

II. Books and Articles 书刊及短文

Aberbach, D. "'w ~tn lhm y~brwm (Jeremiah viii 13): The Problem and its Solution", Vetus Testamentum 27 (1977) 99-101.

Ackroyd, P.R. "Two Old Testament Historical Problems of the Early Persian Period", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 17 (1958), 13-27.

---."Jeremiah X 1-16", Journal of Theological Studies 14 (1963), 385-390.

---.Exile and Restoration: A Study of Hebrew Thought of the Sixth Century B.C. (Old Testament Library). London: SCM Press, 1968.

---."Historians and Prophets", Svensk Exegetisk A>rsbok 33 (1968), 18-54.

---."Historical Problems of the Early Achaemenian Period", Orientalia 20 (1984), 1-15.

Albertz, R. "Jer. 2-6 und die Fru/hzeitverku/ndigung Jeremias", Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 94 (1982), 20-47.

Alonso Schokel, L. "Jeremias como anti-Moise*s", De la To^rah au Messie: E*tudes d~exe*ge&se et d~hermeneitique, bibliques offertes a& Henri Cazelles pour ses 25 anne*es d~enseignement a& 1~Institut Catholique de Paris (Octobre 1979), ed. M. Carrez, J. Dore* and P. Grelot. Paris: Descle*e, 245-254.

Althann, R. "Jeremiah IV 11-12: Stichometry Parallelism and Translation", Vetus Testamentum 28 (1978), 385-391.

Andrew, M.E. "The Authorship of Jer. X 1-16", Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 94 (1982), 127-130.

Baumgartner, W. Die Klagegedicht des Jeremia (Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 32) Giessen: Topelmann, 1917.

Berridge, J.M. Prophet, People, and the Word of Yahweh: An Examination of Form and Content in the Proclamation of the Prophet Jeremiah (Basel Studies of Theology 4). Zurich: EVZ, 1970.

---."Jeremia und die Prophetie des Amos", Theologische Zeitshcrift 35 (1979), 321-341.

Beuken, W.A.M. and van Grol, H.W.M. "Jeremiah 14, 1-15, 9: A Situation of Distress and Its Hermeneutics, Unity and Diversity of Form - Dramatic Development", Le Livre de Je*re*mie, Le prophete et son milieu, Les oracles et leur transmission, ed. Pierre Maurice Bogaert. Leuven: Leuven University, 1981, 297-342.

Blank, S.H. Jeremiah: Man and Prophet. Cincinati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1961.

Bright, J. "The Date of the Prose Sermons of Jeremiah", Journal of Biblical Literature 70 (1951), 15-35.

---."The Apodictic Prohibition: Some Observations", Journal of Biblical Literature 92 (1973), 185-204.

---."A Prophet's Lament and Its Answer: Jeremiah 15: 10-21", Interpretation 28 (1974), 59-74.

Broughton, P.E. "The Call of Jeremiah: The Relation of Deut. 18:9-22 to the Call and Life of Jeremiah", Australian Bible Review 6 (1958), 37-46.

Brueggemann, W. "Jeremiah's Use of Rhetorical Questions", Journal of Biblical Literature 92 (1973), 358-374.

---."The Epistemological Crisis of Israel's Two Histories (Jer. 9:22-23)", Israelite Wisdom: Theological and Literary Essays in Honor of Samuel Terrien, ed. J.G. Gammie and others. Missoula: Scholars Press, 1978, 85-105.

Calkins, R. Jeremiah the Prophet: A Study in Personal Religion. New York: Macmillan, 1930.

Carroll, R.P. From Chaos to Covenant: Uses of Prophecy in the Book of Jeremiah. London: SCM Press, 1981.

---."Theodicy and the Community: The Text and Subtext of Jeremiah V 1-6", Prophets, Worship and Theodicy (Oudtestamentische Studien xxiii, 1984), 19-38.

Castellino, Giorgio R. "Observations on the literary structure of some passages in Jeremiah", Vetus Testamentum 30 (1980). 398-408.

Cazelles, H. "Sophonie, Je*re*mie, et les Scythes en Palestine", Revue Biblique 74 (1967), 24-44.

Childs, B.S. "The Enemy from the North and the Chaos Tradition", Journal of Biblical Literature 78 (1959), 187-198.

Christensen, D.L. "'Terror on every side' in Jeremiah", Journal of Biblical Literature 92 (1973), 498-502.

Clines, D.J.A. and Gunn, D. "Form, Occasion and Redaction in Jeremiah 20", "Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 88 (1976), 390-409.

Cogan, M. "Sentencing at the Gate in Jeremiah 1:15-16", Gratz College Annual 1 (1972), 3-6.

Crenshaw, J.L. "A Living Tradition: The Book of Jeremiah in Current Research", Interpretation 37 (1983), 117-129.

---."Seduction and Rape: The Confessions of Jeremiah", A Whirlpool of Torment: Israelite Traditions of God as an Oppressive Presence (Overtures to Biblical Theology 12). Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984, 31-56.

Dahood, M. "Two Textual Problems in Jeremiah", Catholic Biblical Quarterly 23 (1961), 462-464.

---."Philological Notes on Jeremiah 18:14-15", "Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 74 (1962), 207-209.

---."The emphatic double negative m~yn in Jeremiah 10:6-7", Catholic Biblical Quarterly 37 (1975), 458-459.

---.Psalms 1-50: 51-100; 101-150 (Anchor Bible 16, 17, 17A). Garden City: Doubleday, 1966, 1968, 1970.

Day, J. "The Destruction of the Shiloh Sanctuary and Jer. VII 12, 14", Studies in the Historical Books of the Old Testament (Supplement to Vetus Testamentum 30), ed. J.A. Emerton. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1979, 87-94.

DeRoche, M. "Contra creation, Covenant and Conquest (Jer. VIII 13)", Vetus Testamentum 30 (1980), 280-290.

Driver, G.R. "Linguistic and Textual Problems: Jeremiah", Jewish Quarterly Review 28 (1937/38), 97-129.

Ellison, H.L."The Prophecy of Jeremiah IX: The sin of Jerusalem", The Evangelical Quarterly 33 (1961), 27-35.

Emerton, J.A. "Notes on Some Problems in Jeremiah V 26", Melanges bibliques et orientaux en l~honneur de M. Henri Cazelles (Alter Orient and Ales Testament 212), ed. A. Caquot and M. Delcor. Berlin: Neukirchener Verlag, 1981), 125-133.

Eppstein, V. "The Day of Yahweh in Jeremiah 4, 23-28", Journal of Biblical Literature 87 (1968), 93-97.

Fishbane, M. "Jeremiah IV 23-26 and Job III 3-13: A Recovered Use of the Creation Pattern", Vetus Testamentum 21 (1971), 151-167.

---."Jeremiah 20:7-12/Loneliness and Anguish", Text and Texture: Close Readings of Selected Biblical Texts. London: Schocken Books, 1979, 91-102.

Fohrer, G. "Jeremias Tempelwort (Jeremia 7:1-15)", "Prophetie und Magie", Studien zur altterstamentlichen Prophetie (1949-1965) (Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 99). Giessen: Topelmann 1967.

Gaster, T.H. "Jeremiah", Myth, Legend, and Custom in the Old Testament: A Comparative Study with Chapters from Sir James G. Frazer's Folklore in the Old Testament. London: Duckworth, 1969, 586-606.

Gerstenberger, E. "Jeremiah's Complaints: Observations on Jeremiah 15:10-21", Journal of Biblical Literature 82 (1963), 393-408.

Gilula, M. "An Egyptian Parallel to Jeremiah I 4-5", Vetus Testamentum 17 (1967), 114.

Gouders, K. "'Siehe, ich lege meine Worte in deinen Mund', Die Berufung des Propheten Jeremia (Jer. 1, 4-10)", Bibel und Leben 12 (1971), 162-186.

Gunneweg, A.H.J. "Ordinationasformular oder Berufungsbericht in Jeremia 1", Galube, Geist, Geschichte: Festscrift fur Ernest Benz zum 60 Geburtstage am 17, November 1967, ed. G. Muller and W.W. Zeller. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1967, 91-98.

Gunneweg, A.H.J. "Konfession oder Interpretation im Jeremiabuch", Zeitschrift fu/r Theologie und Kirche 67 (1970), 395-416.

Habel, N. "The Form and Significance of the Call Narratives", Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 77 (1965), 297-323.

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Hobbs, T.R. "Some Remarks on the Composition and Structure of the Book of Jeremiah", Catholic Biblical Quarterly 34 (1972), 257-275.

---."Jeremiah 3:1-5 and Deuteronomy 24:1-4", Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 86 (1974) 23-29.

---."Some Proverbial Reflections in the Book of Jeremiah", Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 91 (1979), 62-72.

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---."The so-called 'Deuteronomic Goss' in Jer. 8:196", Vetus Testamentum 12 (1962), 494-498.

---."Style, Irony, and Authenticity in Jeremiah", Journal of Biblical Literature 81 (1962), 44-54.

---."Jeremiah's Lawsuit with God: A Study in Suffering and Meaning", Interpretation 17 (1963), 280-301.

---."The Background of Jeremiah's Self-Understanding: Moses, Samuel and Psalm 22", Journal of Biblical Literature 83 (1964), 153-164.

---."'The priests scrape out on their hands', Jeremiah V 31", Vetus Testamentum 15 (1965), 111-113.

---."Jeremiah and Moses: Further Observations", Journal of Biblical Literature 85 (1966), 17-27.

---.Holladay, W.L. The Architecture of Jeremiah 1-20. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University, 1976.

---."Structure, Syntax and Meaning in Jeremiah IV 11-12A", Vetus Testamentum 26 (1976), 28-32.

---."The Identification of the Two Scrolls of Jeremiah", Vetus Testamentum 30 (1980), 452-467.

---."The Years of Jeremiah's Preaching", Interpretation 37 (1983), 146-159.

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Hubmann, F.D. Untersuchungen zu den Konfessionen Jer. 11, 18-12, 6 und Jer. 15, 10-21 (Forschung zur Bibel 30). Wurburg: Wurzburg: Echter Verlag, 1978.

---."Jer. 18, 18-23 in Zusammenhang der Kongessionen", Bogaert 1981, 271-96.

Hyatt, J.P. "The Original Text of Jeremiah 11, 15-16", Journal of Biblical Literature 60 (1941), 57-60.

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Ittmann, N. Das Konfessionen Jeremias: Ihre Bedeutung fur die Verkundigung des Propheten (Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament 54). Leipzig: Neukirchener Verlag, 1981.

Janzen, J.G. Studies in the Text of Jeremiah (Harvard Semitic Monographs Series 6). Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973.

Jobling, D.K. "Jeremiah's Poem in III 1-IV 2", Vetus Testamentum 28 (1978), 45-55.

---."The Quest of the Historical Jeremiah: Hermeneutical Implications of Recent Literature", Unions Seminary Quarterly Review 34 (1978), 3-12.

Johnson, A.R. The Vitality of the Individual in the Thought of Ancient Israel. Cardiff: University of Wales, 1949.

Johnstone, W. "The Setting of Jeremiah's Prophetic Activity", Transactions of the Glasgow University Oriental Society 21 (1967), 47-55.

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Kraus, H.J. Prophetie in der Krisis: Studien zu Texten aus dem Buch Jeremia (Biblische Studien 43). Leipzig: Neukirchener Verlag, 1964.

---.Worship in Israel: A Cultic History of the Old Testament. Basil: Blackwell, 1966.

Kremers, H. "Leidensgemeinschaft mit Gott im Alten TestamewntL Eine Untersuchung der 'biographischen' Berichte im Jeremiabuch", Evangelische Theologie 13 (1953), 122-140.

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---."Relations Between Poetry and Prose in the Book of Jeremiah with Special Reference to Jeremiah III 6-11 and II 14-17", Congress Volume: Vienna 1980 (Supplement to Vetus Testamentum 32), ed. J.A. Emerton Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1981, 220-237.

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参考书目(续卷上)

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