返回首页 | 返回本书目录 |

 

阿摩司书第九章

 

(三)最后的败亡(九1-6

本段有第五异象(九1-4),以及第三颂歌(56节)。这个异象是否与以前几个异象同时期,殊难臆断,从形式及内容看,似乎是最后的异象。学者们有不同的见解,有的认为这是在耶路撒冷,1有的却以为在伯特利圣所边,2更有的猜测是在离开犹大之前。3从场合来研究,那是在新年节期,4或在他独处的时候。意见分歧,无法结论。这几异象的记述,文体相同,可能不在异象发生的时期写作的,是在以后才一并记述。在预言列国时,既提说以色列,就将异象全部列出,作为审判的宣告。颂歌部分(56节),可能是指伯特利圣所的毁灭。

异象的报导与以前几个大同小异(七1-8及八12)。同样以自传的方式,着重他亲眼看到的异象。不同的在于开端的话:“主耶和华指示我一件事”(七147,八1)。这里只直接了当说:“我看见主……”

在其它的异象中,只将异象中的情景加以描述与解说,但在这个异象中,神命令先知要有行动,击打柱顶,打碎它。主站在祭坛边加以指挥,还是祂自行动手击打?祭坛通常与柱顶有些距离。但是既为异象,空间的距离就没有多么重要了。

在涵义方面,这最后的异象仍是与前几个是连贯的。神的审判不只对外邦人,也对以色列,正如第一章三节至第二章十六节相同。第四异象已经宣告以色列的结局到了,现在最后的异象中说明审判的后果。

“我看见主站在祭坛旁边,他说:你要击打柱顶,使门坎震动,打碎柱顶落在众人头上,所剩下的人,我必用刀杀戮,无一人能逃避,无一人能逃脱。”(九1

在前几个异象,先知只感到主的指示,未必能看见主。但这里他看见主,而且看清主站的地方位置,可见异象更加重要了。这是说到伯特利的圣所被毁,也包括所有聚集的众人(参阅五5,七17;还有三14)。

主站在祭坛旁边,正好似有人站在墙上,位置十分重要,在语句的文法结构方面也相同。依照列王纪下第廿三章九节:邱坛的祭司是不登耶路撒冷和耶和华的坛。这坛是燔祭的坛,是在圣殿的外院(参阅王上八64)。现在耶和华站在祭坛旁边,必在那高处(参阅赛六1),有伸出来的膀臂,要击打那殿。当柱顶被击时,门坎的根基就会震动,似是地震的现象(一1及士五4),可能也是全地的震撼(珥二10)。门坎是十分坚固的,以西结书第四十章六节,耶路撒冷圣所的门坎有一竿(六肘即九尺)宽,震动起来,说明地震一定十分猛烈。这样说来,灾情一定十分惨重。“打碎”一词在以西结书第廿二章十二节为“流血”,即受伤极重。在约伯记第六章九节译为“压碎”。如果看第二章十三至十六节,似描述一个情景,人们都无法逃脱,甚至快跑的、有力的、刚勇的、拿弓的……等都不能自救。即使有少许余剩的,也必倒在刀下,如鱼明岩h一般(四2)。

在第四异象,结局已经到了。现在这是最后的情景,连一点余剩的都不存在,全部毁灭。

“他们虽然挖透阴间,我的手必取出他们来。虽然爬上天去,我必拿下他们来。”(2节)

以下就有五个“虽然”,假定的语气,显得更为有力。第一个假定是挖阴间,他们以为耶和华不会再以权能追逐他们到阴间(参阅赛卅八18;诗六5;伯十四13)。他们挖透阴间,将阴间描写为无法进入之地(参阅结八8,十二5712以及拿一13)。但是箴言第十五章十一节说:“阴间和灭亡尚在耶和华面前……”耶和华是无所不在的,人往那里逃,可躲避神的面呢?(参阅诗一三九8

神的手是祂的权能,远超阴间的权势(参阅何十三14)。神要取他们出来,是无可抗拒的。于是他们想爬上天去,这正是与阴间相反。但是无论到那里,都无法逃脱神的审判。

“虽然藏在迦密山顶,我必搜寻捉出他们来。虽然从我眼前藏在海底,我必命蛇咬他们。”(3节)

迦密山由于地势较高,又多浓密的丛林,是可躲藏的地方。但是人可因此躲避耶和华吗?亚当在伊甸园的丛林中躲藏(创三10),神查问他:你在那里?人是无法逃脱的。

也许迦密山是指巴力的所在地,先知以利亚特别在那里向巴力先知挑战(记载在王上十八20-29)。5

但是神必搜查出来,捉拿他们,施以极刑。如果他们躲藏在海底呢?那是很隐密的地方,也是在遥远的海极。海常喻为混乱之地,海中的龙或怪兽更为神话的说法,表征着罪恶与凶猛。但是蛇也在耶和华的权下,可以咬他们(伯九13),使他们受致命伤。天、地、海是人所想象的领域,但再加上地震下与海底下,似再加一度空间都是在神掌管之下。6

“虽被仇敌掳去,我必命刀剑杀戮他们。我必向他们定住眼目。降祸不降福。”(4节)

第五个“虽然”的假定,是从自然的领域,转至历史的境地。那是战败之后的情景,被征服者异族来强制掳去,到遥远的地方。也许他们在失望中,以为这样至少不致灭亡,还可以活命。但是事实上被掳还要被杀害,正如本章第一节说,“我必用刀杀戮。”

耶和华向他们定住眼目,正如祂曾向埃及定目观看,埃及军兵溃乱而灭亡(出十四24)。祂的眼目是火焰,烧毁一切的罪人,祂看着以色列,不再赐福,而是降祸。7

“主万军之耶和华摸地,地就消化,凡住在地上的,都必悲哀。地必全然像尼罗河涨起,如同埃及河落下。”(5节)

主是万军之耶和华,是在战场上大能大力的战士英雄得胜者(参阅撒下六2)。这样的称谓见阿摩司书第三章十三节及第六章十四节。这赞美诗也与第四章十三节及第五章六节相连,因为耶和华将以大能审判,要毁灭伯特利的圣所。耶和华大能的手已经抓住他们,取他们出来,拿下他们(九2)。地大震动,在神公义的怒目凝视之下颤抖(九4;参阅诗一○四32)。

这首赞美诗不再有欢乐的庆祝,只有在惊惧中的哀悼,是在神审判之下余民的哀歌,“杀戮”之声(24节)不绝,多人倒地死亡。但是这首歌与前两首(四13及五89)相似,称颂耶和华有无上的威严,祂是超越的神,是创造的主宰,是在世界执掌治权的,在自然界,也在人类社会中。

神摸地,使地震发生,地都消化,在其它经文中也多提说(诗四十六6,九十七5,一○四32,一四四5及鸿一5)。尼罗河与埃及河的涨溢,只是重复八章八节。

“那在天上建造楼阁,在地上安定穹苍,命海水浇在地上的,耶和华是他的名。”(6节)

天上的楼阁是神的居所,但楼阁的柱子(山岳)是安放在地极(伯廿六11)。祂在天上,怎会不抓那爬上天上的人们(九2)?在穹苍上,云层里,有雨水藏在其间,祂可随意使雨水倾倒于地,甚至流入大海。祂也可使海水N涌流向地面,使地充满大水。

耶和华是祂的名,祂是掌管宇宙的主,祂在其中,显现在地上,向世人,对一切的人,罪人不能逃脱,祂公义的大能彰显了。

 

1 Andre* Neher, Amos, Contribution a& l'e*tude du prophe*tisme, (1950), 127. Rene* Vuilleumier-Bessard, la tradition cultuelle d~lsrael dane la prophe*tie d~Amos et d'Osee*, (1960),72.

2 Artur Weiser, Die propetie des Amos, (1929), 42.

3 参阅Edmond Jacob, Carl A. Keller and Samuel Amsler, Ose*e, Joe/l, Amos, Abdias, Jonas, (1965), 239.

4 Edwin C. Kingsbury, "The Prophets and the Council of Yahweh," Journal of Biblical Literature, 83 (1964), 283.

5 Kurt Galling, "Der Gott Karmel und die A:chtung der fremden Go/tter," in Geschichte und Alten Testament, ed. G. Ebeling (1953), 105-23.

6 约伯记十一章八至九节也有这四度空间。海所象征的力量,可参阅诗篇七十四篇十三节,九十三篇三至四节以及约伯记七章十二节。

7 J. Alberto Soggin, "Der Prophetische Gedanke u/ber den heiligen Krieg, als Gericht gegen Israel," Vetus Testastamentum, 10 (1966), 79-83, Hans Martin Lutz, Jahwe Jerusalem und die Vo/lker, (1968), 190-200.

 

(四)复兴的前景(九7-15

在以色列民族复兴之前,耶和华要他们知道神与列国的关系,祂恩待以色列,也恩待万邦。耶和华是历史的主。

在历史复兴的过程中,审判是有洁净锻炼的功能。神的信实必使大·的国度恢复更新。大地的丰盛是耶和华赐福的明证。以色列被掳的必归回,重整家园,故土得以复兴,语多积极的希望。

在本书,每在异象的叙述之后,必有一番分析与解释,如第七章九至十七节及第八章三至十四节。在整体的言词中,语气不同,用语亦迥异。这里从“雅各家”(8节),转至“大·的帐幕”。“国”(九8上),只在第六章二节与第八章八节提说。第七节以问语方式,在本书第三章三至六节及第六章十二节也曾出现,可谓一种特色。

在第七节“耶和华说”,这节自成一个单元。第八节以“这是耶和华说的”作结,成另一单元。第九、十节必是相连的。复兴的预言自第十一节起至十五节,一气呵成。

{\Section:TopicID=171}(1)神待列国(九7

“耶和华说,以色列人哪,我岂不看你们如古实人么?我岂不是领以色列人出埃及地,领非利士人出迦斐托,领亚兰人出吉珥么?”(7节)

以色列是否与列国不同呢?他们虽为耶和华的选民,并不表明他们有特权,是其它国族所不如的。主恩待世人,并不偏待。古实人实则是指埃及人,因为古实人也在尼罗河的区域,只是在南端。

神曾领以色列人出埃及,也有同样的恩典临到外邦人,因为祂曾领非利士人出迦斐托,亚兰人出吉珥。这两种人都是以色列主要的仇敌,但是在两族人早期的历史中,神也对他们有恩典的作为。非利士人曾为大·所征服(撒下五17起)。亚兰人也为耶罗波安二世战败(六13)。

非利士人出迦斐托,迦斐托的地理环境向为学者所注意。根据七十士希腊文译本,作迦伯多嘉(Cappadocia),申命记第二章廿三节提及,但耶利米书第四十七章四节为“海岛”,必是在滨海的地区,根据名词与考古学的资料,必在小亚细亚的南部海滨。8在主前五百年左右,以色列将迦斐托作为革哩底(这是新约用词,旧约内为基利提:番二5;结廿五16;撒上三十14,基利提的南方,似指巴勒斯坦)。9

“亚兰人”首次出现的名称,是在主前1127年,就是提革拉毘利撒一世第四年。10他们来自叙利亚的阿拉伯沙漠地带。吉珥实际的地点并不清楚,必在这偌大的沙漠中。阿摩司在第一章五节曾经提及。列王纪下第十六章九节也提及。以赛亚书第廿二章六节,吉珥与以拦相提并论。

这里先知无意否认以色列蒙拣选的恩典,只是强调神是普世的主。且看第三章二节:在地上万族中,我只认识你们。也因为以色列特别蒙恩,才需负特殊的责任。耶和华以忿怒与悲怆的语气说:我民以色列的结局到了。

{\Section:TopicID=172}(2)审判炼净(九8-10

“主耶和华的眼目察看这有罪的国。必将这国从地上灭绝,却不将雅各家灭绝净尽。这是耶和华说的。”(8节)

以色列固然不可以选民自恃,而列国,尤其是以色列的仇敌也断不可恣意侵犯以色列,雅各家与“这有罪的国”还是有分别的。雅各家通常指北国(三13,七25,六8,八7)。或许有罪之国指北国,但雅各家指选民,这样的解释也不无理由。11北国不久即将败亡,不再是一个国家了,但是民族的败亡,并未全然灭绝。他们虽然被分散至各地,神的旨意也使他们在管教下学功课,使他们还有回转的机会。神的公义是灭绝,祂的信实是保守。但是公义另一方面是救赎,所以以色列民族不被灭绝,仍是神原有的心意。

“我必出令,将以色列家分散在列国中,好像用筛子筛谷,连一粒也不落在地上。”(9节)

神将以色列家分散在列国中,仍有祂积极的用意,这是为炼净他们,促他们更新。筛谷的表象在旧约中并不多见。谷粒不筛下去,该是好的质地(参阅五7下,丢弃于地是不足惜的,但他们竟将公义丢下)。但是如果这里用字是小石头(如撒下十七13),小石头不落下,就是不好的现象。读上下文,这里的涵义仍是正面的,因为神对待以色列人,不是灭绝,而是保守,使他们仍得存留,只是他们要经过一番被筛的经验,筛谷是将筛子摇动,这必是惊怕与不安的感受。

“我民中的一切罪人说,灾祸必追不上我们,也迎不着我们。他们必死在刀下。”(10节)

他们自知有罪,就拼命逃跑,以为迅速离开,灾祸追不上他们,不仅背后没有追赶,前面也无威胁。这种自我安慰的自欺话必不攻自破,他们必倒在刀下而亡。这是耶和华的日子,无人可以逃脱,人都在审判之下,义人必被保留,筛子怎样筛动,也无法使他们落在地上。但是一切罪人是无法幸免的,他们都将被刀杀,全然灭绝,刑罚必在他们身上。

{\Section:TopicID=173}(3)重新建造(九1112

这是救恩的宣告(11节),加以说明,并强调神的话(12节),以第一人称说话,是耶和华的言词(“我心”……“为我名下”)。以下仍是耶和华自己宣布的(13节起)。所以本书作结的话十分重要。

从这预言想到历史的背景,就应追溯拿单的预言(撒下七11-16),尤其是关于大·家的命运。

“到那日,我必建立大·倒塌的帐幕,堵住其中的破口,把那破坏的建立起来,重新修造,像古时一样。”(11节)

“那日”仍必指耶和华的日子,就是黑暗没有光明的日子。但是那并非全然没有希望的末时,因为以色列人仍坚持大·的辉煌时代,只是现在大·的帐幕已经倒塌了。以色列民族已经支离破碎,无法成为整体。

大·倒塌的帐幕必指耶路撒冷,因为那里的城墙才可能有破口需要堵塞,正如以赛亚书第一章八节所描写的,是被围困的城邑。但是破口必须修补(赛五十八12)。那破坏的建立起来,重新建造,像古时一样。这是追溯拿单向大·明神与他立约的用意(撒下七章)。

邦国的兴衰,岂非神所不顾的呢?耶和华以色列的神,也是历史的主,必治理万国,实现祂公义的旨意。

“使以色列人得以东所余剩的,和所有称为我名下的国,此乃行这事的耶和华说的。”(12节)

在大·的日子,以东曾被大·王打败,成为附庸。但是以东一直成为以色列的威胁。他们原出于同一家族,却彼此为仇,现在应归于大·所兴建的国度。当时大·不仅征服以东,也制服非利士、摩押、亚扪及叙利亚。这些都归以色列,而以色列为耶和华名下的国。

现在早已事过境迁,不复大·当年的荣华。但以色列人仍懹有复兴的盼望,希望再恢复那时的盛况。神以祂的应许,必然信实地达成。从现状来看,大·的帐幕都已倒塌,但是重新建造,并非不可能。

{\Section:TopicID=174}(4)自然丰饶(九13

“耶和华说,日子将到,耕种的必接续收割的,踹葡萄的必接续撒种的。大山要滴下甜酒。小山都必流奶。”(13节)

“耶和华说”,是耶和华的言词,丰收是祂的赐福,而这物质的丰富,还是与大·的国有关,这是弥赛亚预言。到那日子,是弥赛亚时代,大地的丰饶,自然的丰美情景,是神藉先知应许以色列人,使他们向往,憧景以色列复兴的前景。

在巴勒斯坦,耕种要在秋天的雨后,约在十、十一月之间,而收割的季节是在春季,即四、五月的时候。其中相隔有半年之久。但这里所描绘的,耕种与收割的接续,足见丰收的盛况。这虽是言过其实,但是丰收的程度可延续许久,却是难得的景象。踹葡萄的,大概在九月间,而撒种是十一、十二月,但是赶紧撒种,因为谷物生长太快,刻不容缓,收成看好,又可增加多么欢乐的期待。

利未记第廿六章五节:“你们打粮食要打到摘葡萄的时候。摘葡萄要摘到撒种的时候,并且吃得饱足。”这就是形容因遵主命而蒙福的实况。以西结书第四十七章十二节,水从圣所流出,树在每月都可结出新果。约珥书第三章十八节也是一幅乐园的画面,有何等丰饶的景象。

葡萄丰收,新酒满溢,牛羊成批,奶必丰盈。所以这里在诗情的描绘中,大山小山都流出甜酒与奶水,生命必得滋养与丰盈。

{\Section:TopicID=175}(5)被掳归回(九1415

“我必使我民以色列被掳的归回,他们必重修荒废的城邑居住。栽种葡萄园,喝其中所出的酒。修造果木园,吃其中的果子。”(14节)

这里正如第九章十一、十二节,又回到政治的现状。约珥书第三章十九至廿一节的复兴景象,可在此处应用。约珥书第三章一节也有同样的话:到那日,我使犹大和耶路撒冷被掳的人归回。整个情形转变,是必有的。

复兴是重修废墟,重整家园(九11),修造葡萄园果木园,也是有一番新的气象。第五章十一节的威胁:建造房屋,不得居住,栽种果园,不得喝酒,那种情形不会再有了。第三章十一、十五节以及第六章八、十一节的威胁也消除了。现在只有建设,没有破坏,从破坏中复苏,在安定中求进步。

“我要将他们栽于本地,他们不再从我所赐给他们的地上拔出来。这是耶和华你的神说的。”(15节)

现在再强调复兴,不再有被掳的威胁(四23,五527,七1117)。这里的用语可与耶利米书比较。耶和华呼召耶利米时,要他施行拔出,再裁种(参阅一10)。耶利米书第廿四章六节,神说:我要眷顾他们,使他们得好处,领他们归回这地,我也要建立他们,必不拆毁,裁植他们,并不拔出。第卅一章廿八节,必照样留意将他们建立栽植。第四十二章十节,我就建立你们,必不拆毁,栽植你们并不拔出。

这是主耶和华你的神说的,成为非常有力的结语。

 

8 Gerald Avery Wainwright, "Caphtor-Cappadocia," Vetus Testamentum, 6 (1956), 199-210, Friedrich Cornelius, "Genesis 14," Zeitschrift fu/r die Slttestamentliche Wissenschaft, 72 (1960), 5n, 16.

9 Robert Bach, "Kaphtor," Die Religion in Gesch chte und Gegenwart, (Handwo/rterbuch fu/r Theologie und Religsonswissenschaft, 3) (1957),. 1134.

10 Emil Forrer, "Aramu," Realbekikon der Assyrialogie, 1 (1932), 131.

11 Hans Wolff, Amos, 348.

 

第九章概要

最后的异象仍接续前几个异象。第一、二个异象说明神还盼待以色列人悔改,以致可免除灾殃。但是祂逐失望了。第三异象已经表明神不再宽恕他们。第四异象更定规以色列的结局。最后的异象中,圣所拆毁,全国人民都将灭亡,不再有任何希望。

人们实际上无法逃避耶和华,上天下地甚至到海底,耶和华的眼、手及刀、剑,都不会放过他们。历史的终局已经到了,再没有将来的机会,人们都必须经过审判,都得站在神的审判台前。

在这异象,先知开拓了一个新的境界,是普世主义的见解。耶和华不仅是列国的主,也从历史的境界,到自然的领域,整个宇宙在祂的权下,甚至海中的兽也屈服在祂之下。因此这首颂诗实际是审判的信息。地大震动,其中的居民都哀哭。神从天上的圣所,审判地上圣所的会众。本章第五、六节这个颂词,为本书第三首赞美诗。

第二段(7-10节),多少重复以前的信息。耶和华是历史的主,祂不容以色列妄自尊大,祂也恩待列国,与对待以色列一样。但是祂也要他们向祂负责,祂公义的要求对失败者施以审判。

本书的结论,表明以色列的结局,不是神的心意。历史证明,以色列败亡并未了结。他们即使被掳,希望并未消失,神还有新的信息,给予新的应许。救恩的末事预言必将实现,神对大·的祝福,甚至在被掳之后仍旧有效,神的信实何其广大久长,祂挽回以色列的厄运,完全扭转整个的局势。

历史的事实都历历可数,为后世见证的,如倒塌的帐幕与破口(11节),荒废的城邑(14节),被掳(15节)。但是在另一方面有重建,管辖以色列人仇敌以东,还有丰收的田园,可怕的审判终必过去。新世界将为以色列的国运,安定与兴盛。

但是以色列还须学习顺从,这是耶和华的工作,祂先广行赦免,在审判之后,还有赦免与拯救。

重建大·的帐幕,是死海古卷之修道团体(Qumran Community)所关切的。12新约使徒行传第十五章十六至十七节雅各的言词中,特别引用阿摩司书这段话,说明神的救恩,怎样选取外邦人归于自己的名下,基督徒团体是一种新的团体。

所以阿摩司书的结语,不只是针对当代以色列的历史处,更为预言以后救赎的实况,神要建立祂的子民,不只是以色列,更是信服基督的外邦人。信徒的国体必有神的建立与施恩。

神的公义是审判与拯救,祂所建立的必不被拆毁,所栽种的,也无法拔出。旧的老去消逝,新的取代之后必常有更新的力量。这是神的旨意,由旧约先知表达出来,使新约教会切实体认。这是神的应许,祂的信实必成全这事,切实应验,使我们蒙福无尽!

 

12 Herbert Braun, Qumran und dss Neve Testament, 2 (1966), 319-20.

参考书目

{\LinkToBook:TopicID=221,Name=阿摩司書}{\LinkToBook:TopicID=226,Name=彌迦書}        (一)注译{\LinkToBook:TopicID=222,Name=(一)註譯}

        (二)概论{\LinkToBook:TopicID=223,Name=(二)概論}

        (三)信息{\LinkToBook:TopicID=224,Name=(三)信息}

        (四)经文{\LinkToBook:TopicID=225,Name=(四)經文}

(一)注译

Amsler, Samuel. "Amos,"in Edmond Jacob, Carl A. Kller, and Samuel Amsler, Ose*e, Joe%l, Amos, Abadias, Jonas (Commentaire de l~ Ancien Testament 11a) Nuecha^tel: Delachaux & Niestle*, 1985, 157-291.

Baur, Gustav A.L. Der Prophet Amos erkla/rt. Giessen, 1847.

Blechmann, Malke. Das Buch Amos im Talmud und Midrash. Leipzig, 1937.

Budde, Karl. "Zu Text und Auslegung des Buches Amos,"Journal of Biblical Literature 43 (1924), 46-131: 44 (1925), 62-122.

Burrons, W.O. Amos. 1898.

Canney, Maurice A. "Amos," in A Commentary on the Bible, ed. Arthur S. Peake. New York, 1920. 547-554.

Cripps, Richard S. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Amos. London: SPCK, 1929.

Driver, Samuel Rolles. The Books of Joel and Amos (The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges). Cambridge: University Press, 1915.

Edghill, Ernest Arthur and G.A. Cooke, The Book of Amos (Westminster Commentaries). London: 1926.

Elhorst, Hendrik Jan. De profetie van Amos. Leiden, 1900.

Fosbroke, Hughell E.W. "The Book of Amos: Introduction and Exegesis," in Interpreter's Bible, 6, 761-853.

Frey, Hellmuth. Das Buch des Ringens Gottes um seine Kirche: Der Prophet Amos (Die Botschaft des Alten Testaments 23/1). Stuttgart: Calwer, 1965.

Gressmann, Hugo. Die a/lteste Geschichtsschreibung und Prophets Israels (von Samuel bis Amos und Hosea).Die Schriften des Alten Testaments 3/1. Go/ttingen, 1921.

Guthe, Hermann. "Der Prophet Amos," in Heilige Schrift des Alten Testament 2, 30-47.

Hale/vy, Joseph. "Recherches bibliques - Le Livre d~Amos,"Revue Semitique 11 (1903, 1-31, 97-121, 193-209, 289-300, 12 (1904), 1-18.

Hammershaimb, Erling. The Book of Amos: A Commentary, tr. John Sturdy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1970.

Harper, William Rainey. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Amos and Hosea (International Critical Commentary). Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1905.

Hauret, Charles. Amos et Ose***e: (Verbum Salutis, Ancien Testament 5) Paris: Beauchesne, 1970.

How, J.C.H. Joel and Amos (Smaller Cambridge Bible for Schools). Cambridge: University Press. 1910.

Hyatt, J. Philip. "Amos," in Peake~s Commentary on the Bible, ed. Matthew Black and H.H. Rowley. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1963, 617-625.

King, Philip J. "Amos," in the Jerome Biblical Commentary, ed. Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1968, I: 245-252.

Kraft, Charles F. "The Book of Amos," in The Interpreter~s One Volume Commentary on the Bible, ed. Charles M. Laymon. Nashville and New York: Abingdon, 1971, 465-476.

Kutal, Bartholomaeus. Libri Prophetarum Amos et Abdiae (Commentarii in Prophetas Minores 3). Olmu/tz, 1933.

McKeating, Henry. The Books of Amos, Hosea and Micah (The Cambridge Bible Commentary on the New English Bible). Cambridge: University Press, 1971.

Marsh, John. Amos and Micah: Introduction and Commentary. Torch Bible Commentaries. London: SCM, 1959.

Mays, James Luther. Amos: A Commentary (Old Testament Library. Philadelphia Westminster, 1969.

Myers, Jacob M. The Books of Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, and Jonah (The Layman~s Bible Commentary 14). Atlanta: John Knox, 1959.

Osty, Emile. Amos, Ose*e (La Sainte Bible). Paris: Les Editions du Cerf, 1952.

Prager, Mirjam. "Amos, der Hirte aus Teqoa," Bibel und Liturgie 36 (1962-63) 84-96, 164-72, 243-55, 295-308.

Proksch, Otto. Die kleinen Prophetischen Schriften von dem Exil (Erlauterungen zum Alten Testament 3). Stuttgart, 1910.

Routtenberg, Hyman J. Amos of Tekoa: A Study in Interpretation. New York: Washington, and Hollywood: Vantage, 1971.

Rudolph, Wilhelm. Joel - Amos - Obadka - Jona (Kommentar zum Alten Testament 3/2). Gutersloh: Gutersolher Verlagshaus, 1971.

Ryan, D. "Amos" in A New Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture, ed Reginald C. Fuller, et al. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1969, 693-701.

Smith, Ralph L. "Amos," in The Broadman Bible Commentary, vol. 7. (Hosea-Malachi); ed. Clifton J. Allen. Nashville: Broadman, 1972, 81-141.

Snaith, Norman H, Amos, Hosea and Micah. (Epworth Preacher~s Commentaries). London: Epworth, 1956.

Snaith, Norman H. The Book of Amos, 2 vols. London: Epworth, 1945-46.

Van Gelderen, C. Het boek Amos (Commentaar op het Oude Testament) Kampen, 1933.

Veldkamp, H. Paraphrase van het boek van den profeet Amos en van boek van den profeet Obadjah. 1940.

Werner, Herbert. Amos (Exempla Bibica 4). Go/ttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1969.

Williams, Arthur Lukyn. Joel and Amos (The Minor Prophets Unfolded) London, 1918.

 

(二)概论

Brillet, Gaston. Amos et Ose*e. Paris: Les Editions du Cerf, 1944.

Copass, Benjamin Andrew. Amos. Nashville, 1939.

Cramer, Karl. Amos, Versuch einer theologischen Interpretation (Beitrage zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament 51). Stuttgart, 1930.

Desnoyers, Louis. "Le prophete Amos," Revue biblique 26 (1917), 218-246.

Engnell, Ivan. "Amos" and "Amos~ bok" in Svenskt Bibliskt Uppslagsverk, vol. 1; ed. Ivan Engnell, et al. Gavle: Skolforlaget, 1948, 59-61, 61-63.

Eybers, I, H., F. Charles Fensham; J.J. Gluck, C.J. Labuschagne; L. M. Muntingh, A. van Selms, B.J. van der Merwe, and H.S. Pelser. Studies in the Books of Hosea and Amos Die Ou Testamentiese Werkgemeenskap un Suid-Afrika, 7th and 8th Congress, 1964-65. Potchefstroom: Rege-Pers Beperk, 1965.

Forrer, Gerog. Die Propheten des Alten Testaments, vol 1: Die Pro-pheten des 8. Jarhrhunderts. Gu/tersloh: Gu/tersloher Verlagshaus, 1974, 22-55.

Gunning, Johannes Hermanus. De Gospraken van Amos, Leiden, 1885.

Haran, Menahem. "Amos" in Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 2 (A-Ang. Jerusalem: Keter, 1971, 879-889.

Hartung, Kaspar. Der Prophet Amos, nach dem Grundtext erklart (Biblische Studien), Freiburg, 1898.

Herntrich Volkmar. Amos, der prophet Gottes (Wege in die Bibel 4) Gottingen, 1941.

Kapelrud, Arvid S. Central Ideas in Amos (Skrifer utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo, II. Hist-Filos. Klasse 2). Oslo: H. Aschehoug 1961.

Koehler, Ludwig. "Amos," Schweizerische Theologische Zeitschrift 34 (1917), 10-21, 68-79, 145-157, 190-208.

Krause, Hans Helmut. "Die Gerichtsprophet Amos, ein Vorla/ufer des Deuteronomisten, " Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 50 (1932), 221-239.

Kroeker, Jakob. Die Propheten oder das Reden Gottes (vorexilisch): Amos und Hosea, (Das Lebendige Word 4). Giessen, 1932.

Lo/hr, Max, Untersuchungen zum Buch Amos (Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 4). Giessen, 1901.

Maag, Victor. Text, Wortschatz und Begriffswelt des Buches Amos. Leiden E, J, Brill, 1951.

Mitchell, H.G. Amos: An Essay in Exegesis. Boston:1900.

Moreno, C.A. "Amos," Theologia y Vida 4 (1963), 23-25.

Morgenstern, Julian. Amos Studies I-III Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1941.

Morgenstern, Julian, "Amos Studies IV", Hebrew Union College Annual 32 (1961), 295-350.

Neher, Andre. Amos. Contribution a& l~e*tude du prophe*tisme. Paris: J. Vrin, 1950.

Oettli, Samuel. Amos und Hosea. Zwei Zeugen gegen die Anwendung der Evolutionsthorie auf die Religion Israels (Beitra/ge zur Forderung christlicher Theologie 5/4). Gutersloh, 1901.

Oort, Henricus. "De profeet Amos," Theologisch Tijdschrift 14 (1880), 114-158.

Schmidt, Hans. Der Prophet Amos. Tu/bingen, 1917.

Schottroff, Willy, "Amos-Das Portra/t eines Propheten (I-V),"Stimme 24 (1972), 113-115, 145-146, 193-196, 225-227, 289-292.

Smart, James D. "Amos" in The Interpreter~s' Dictionary of the Bible, vol. 1 (A-D); ed. George A. Buttrick, et al. Nashville: Abingdon, 1962, 116-121.

Sutcliffe, Thomas Henry. The Book of Amos (Biblical Handbooks). London. 1939.

Touzard, Jules. Le livre d~Amos. Paris, 1908.

Tweedie, Andres. A Sketch of Amos and Hosea. Edinburgh: Valeton, J.J.P. 1916.

Ward, James M. "Amos," in The Interpreter~s Dictionary of the Bible, Supplementary Volume; ed. Keith Crim, et al. Nashville: Abingdon, 1976, 21-23.

---.Amos and Isaiah: Prophets of the Word of God. Nashville: Abingdon, 1969.

Wattsm John D.W. Vision and Prophecy in Amos. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1958.

Weiser, Artur. Die Profetie des Amos (Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 53). Giessen, 1929.

Wolfe, Rolland Emerson. Meet Amos and Hosea, The Prophets of Israel. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1945.

Wurthwein, Ernest. "Amos-Studien," Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 62 (1950), 10-52.

 

(三)信息

Amsler, Samuel. "Amos, Prophe/te de la onzie&me heure,"Theologische Zeit-Schrift 21 (1965), 318-328.

Barackman, Paul F. "Preaching from Amos," Interpretation 13 (1959), 296-315.

Barth, Karl. Church Dogmatics 4/2, The Doctrine of Reconciliation, tr. G.W. Bromiley. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1958, 445-452.

Baumgartner, Walter. Kennen Amos und Hosea eine Heilseschatologie? Unpublished dissertation. Zurich, 1913.

Benson, Alphonsus." From the Mouth of the Lion', The Messianism of Amos," Catholic Biblical Quarterly 19 (1957), 199-212.

Boehmer, Julius. "Die Eigenart der prophetischen Heilspredigt des Amos," Theologische Studien und Kritiken 76 (1903), 35-47.

Botterweck, Johannes. "Sie verkaufen den Unschuldigen um Geld,' Zur sozialen Kritik des Propheten Amos," Bibel und Leben 12 (1971), 215-231.

Bruston, Edouard. "Messages prophe*tiques: I. Le message d~Amos," E!tudes The*ologiques et Religeuses 7 (1932), 158-172.

Dijkema, F. "Le fond des propheties d~Amos" in Oudtestamentische Studien 2. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1943, 18-34.

Dumeste, M.L. "La spiritualite* des prophe&tes d~Israe/l (Le message du prophe&te Amos)," La Vie Spirituelle 74 (1946), 834-852; 75 (1946), 424-37.

Fender, Marlene. "Zur Sozialkritik des Amos. Versuch einer wirtschafts und sozialgeschichtlichen Interpretation alttestamentliche Texts," Evangelische Theologie 33 (1973), 32-53.

Feuillet, Andre*. "L~universalisme et l~alliance dans la religion d~Amos," Bible et vie* chretienne 17 (1957), 17-29.

Hermann, Siegfried. Die prophetischen Heilserwartungen im Alten Testament: Ursprung und Gestaltwandel (Beitrage zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament 85). Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1965, 118-126.

Howie, Carl G. "Expressly for Our Time: The Theology of Amos," Interpretation 13 (1959), 273-285.

Humbert, Paul. "Un he*raut de la justice, Amos," Revue de The*ologie de Philosophie, n. s. 5 (1917), 5-35.

Hyatt, J. Philip. "The Book of Amos," Interpretation 3 (1949), 338-348.

Irwin, W.A. "The Thinking of Amos," American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 49 (1932-33), 102-114.

Kapelrud, Arvid S. "God as Destroyer in the Preaching of Amos and in the Ancient Near East," Journal of Biblical Literature 71 (1952), 33-38.

---."New Ideas in Amos", Volume du Congres, Geneve, 1965. Supplement to Vetus Testamentum 15. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1966, 193-206.

Laridon, V. "Amos, genuine religionis defensor ac propheta instituae socialis," Collectiones Brufenses 47 (1951), 405-410; 48 (1952), 3-7, 27-31.

Lattes, Dante. "Amos, prophete de la justice," Madregoth 1 (1940), 23-31.

Leahy, Michael. "The Popular ldea of God in Amos," lrish Theological Quarterly 22 (1955), 68-73.

McFadyen, John Edgar. A Cry for Justice: A Study in Amos. New York, 1912.

Morgensterm, Julian. "The Universalism of Amos," in Essays presented to Leo Baeck on the Occasion of His Eightieth Birthday. London: East & West Library, 1954, 106-126.

Mousset, Pazifique. "La pe*dagogie d~um prophe&te: Amos,"Cate*chistes 27 (1956), 267-73.

Oettli, Samuel. "Der Kultus bei Amos und Hosea," in Greifswalder Studien. Theologische Abhandlungen (Festschrift Hermann Cremer). Gu/tersloh, 1895, 1-34.

Paton, Lewis Bayles. "Did Amos approve the Calf-Worship at Bethel?" Journal of Biblical Literature 13 (1894), 80-91.

Prado, Juan. Amos, el Profeta Pastor. Madrid: El Perpetuo Socorro, 1950.

Randellini, Lino."Ricchi e Poveri nel libro del Profeta Amos," Studii Biblici Franciscani 2 (1951-52), 5-86.

Rudolph, Wilhelm. "Gott und Mensch bei Amos," in Imago Dei:Festschrift fu/r Gustave Kruger, ed. Heinrich Bornkamm. Giessen, 1932, 19-31.

Schrade, Hubert. Der verborgene Gott. Gottesbild und Gottesvorstellung in Israel und im alten Orient Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1949. 157-63.

Smend, Ruddolf. "Das Nein des Amos," Evangelische Theologie 23 (1963), 404-434.

Spiegel, Shalom. "Amos vs. Amaziah," in The Jewish Expression, ed Judah Goldin. New York: Bantam Books, 1970, 38-65.

Steenbergen, Van. Motivation in Relation to the Message of Amos. Unpublished Dissertation. Los Angeles, 1953.

Whitesides, R.A.D. The Gospel according to Amos. Unpublished Disseration. Princetion, 1952.

Williams, Donald L. "The Theology of Amos," Review and Expositor 63 (1966) 393-403.

Wolff, Hans Walter. Die Stunde des Amos. Prophetie und Protest. Munchen: Chr. Kaiser, 1969.

 

(四)经文

Ackryd, Peter R. "Amos 7:14," Expository Times 68 (1956-57), 94.

Ahlstrom, G.W. "Hammoreh lisdaqah in Joel 2:23," in Congress Volume, Rome, 1968. (Supplement to Vetus Testamentum 17) Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1968, 25-36.

Bartina, Sebastian. "Vivit Potentia Beer-S%%eba.' (Amos 8:14)," Verbum Domini 1956, 202-210.

Barstad, Hans M. "Die Basankuhe in Amos 4:1," Vetus Testamentum 25 (1975), 286-297.

Baumann, Eberhard. "Eine Einzelheit," Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 64 (1952), 62.

Baumgartner, Walter. "Amos 3:3-8," Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 33 (1913), 78-80.

Beck, M.A. "The Religious Background of Amos 2:6-8," in Oudtestamentlische Studien 5. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1948, 132-141.

Bentzen, Aage. "The Ritual Background of Amos 1:2-2:16," in Oudtestamentlische Studien 8. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1950, 85-99.

Berg, Werner. Die sogemnante Hymnen fragmente im Amosbuch, Europaische Hochschulschriften 23/45. Bern: Herbert Lang, 1974.

Bertholet, Alfred. "Zu Amos 1:2" in Festschrift G. Nathaniel Bonwetsch. Leipzig, 1918, 1-12.

Bewer, Julius A. "Critical Notes on Amos 2:7 and 8:4,"American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 19 (1903), 116-117.

Boyle, Marjorie O'Rourke. "The Covenant Lawsuit of the Prophet Amos 3:1-4:13," Vetus Testamentum 21 (1971), 338-362.

Bruggemann, Walter. "Amos' Intercessory Formula," Vetus Testamentum 19 (1969) 385-399.

Brunet, Gilbert. "La vision de l~e*tain: reinterpre*tation d~Amos 7:7-9," Vetus Testamentum 16 (1966), 387-395.

Budde, Karl. "Amos 1:2," Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 30 (1910), 37-41.

Condamin, Albert. "Le pretendu `fil &&a& plomb* de la vision d~Amos," Revue biblique 9 (1900), 586-594.

Coote, Robert B, "Amos 1:11: RHMYW," Journal of Biblical Literature 90 (1971), 206-208.

Crenshaw, James L. Hymnic Affirmation of Divine Justice: The Doxologies of Amos and Related Texts in the Old Testament (Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 24). Missoula, Montana: Scholars Press, 1975.

Dahood, Mitchell J. " 'To pawn one's cloak,'" Biblica 42 (1961), 359-366.

Devescovi, Urbano: "'Camminare sulle alture, "' Rivista Biblica 9 (1961), 235-242.

Dobbie, Robert. "Amos 5:25," Transactions of the Glasgow University Oriental Society 17 (1959), 62-64.

Driver, Godfrey Rolles. "Amos 7:14," Expository Times 67 (1955-56), 91-92.

---. "Difficult Words in the Hebrew Prophets" in Studies in Old Testament Prophecy Presented to Professor Theodore H. Robinson, ed. H.H. Rowley. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1950, 52-72.

---. "A Hebrew Burial Custom," Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 66 (1955), 314-315.

Eihorst, Hendrik Jan. "Amos 6:5," Zeitschrift die fu/r alttestamentliche wissenschaft 35 (1915), 62-63.

Felsenthal, Bernhard. "Zur Bibel und Grammatik," in Semitic Studies in Memory of Rev. Dr Alexander Kohut, ed. George Alexander Kohut. Berlin, 1897, 133-137. (22 Zur Erklarung von Amos 6:10).

Fishbane, Michael. "The Treaty Background of Amos 1:11 and Related Matters," Journal of Biblical Literature 89 (1970), 313-318.

Flurival, Ephrem. "Le jour du judgement (Amos 9:7-15)," Bible et vie chretienne 8 (1954-55), 61-75.

Freedman, David Noel and Francis I. Anderson. "Harmon in Amos 4:3," Bulletin of American School of Oriental Research 198 (1970). 41.

Gaster, Theodore H. "An Ancient Hymn in the Prophecies of Amos," Journal of the Manchester Egyptian and Oriental Society 19(1935), 23-26.

Glanzman, George S. "Two Notes: Am 3:15 and Os 11:8-9", Catholic Biblical Quarterly 23 (1961), 227-233.

Gunneweg, Antonius H.J. "Erwagungen zu Amos 7:14," Zeitschrift fur Theologie und Kirche 57 (1960), 1-16.

Happel, Otto. "Am 2:6-16 in der Urgestalt," Biblische Zeitschrift 3 (1905), 355-367.

Hesse, Franz. "Amos 5:4-6; 14ff," Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 68 (1956), 1-17.

Hillers, Delbet R. "Amos 7:14 and Ancient Parallels,"Catholic Biblical Quarterly 26 (1964), 221-225.

Hogg, Hope W. "The Starting-Point of the Religious Message of Amos," in Transactions of the Third International Congress for the History of Religions, vol. 1. Oxford, 1908, 325-327.

Holladay, William L. "Amos 6:1b: A Suggested Solution,"Vetus Testamentum 22 (1972), 107-10.

---. "Once More, `anak = *tin,~ Amos 7:7-8," Vetus testamentum 20 (1970), 492-494.

Holwerda, Benne. ...Begonnen hebbende van Mozes... (Terneuzen:D.H. Littoij 1953), 31-47 ("Da exegese van Amos 3:3-8").

Hoonacker, Albin van. "Le sens de la protestation d~Amos Vll, 14-15," Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 18 (1941), 65-67.

Hyatt, J. Philip. "The Translation and Meaning of Am 5:23-24," Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 68 (1956), 17-24.

Junker, Hubert. "Leo rugiit, quis non timebit? Deus locutus est, quis non prophetabit? Eine textkritische und exegetische Untersuchung uber-Amos 3: 3-8," Trierer Theologische Zeitschrift 59 (1950), 4-13.

---. "Text und Bedeutung der Vision Amos 7:7-9," Biblica 17 (1936), 359-364.

Kaupel, Heinrich. "Gibtes opferfeindiche Stellen im Alten Testament?" Theologie und Glaube 17 (1925), 172-178.

Keimer, Ludwif. "Eine Bemerkung zu Amos 7:14," Biblica 8 (1927), 441-444.

Leeuwen, C. van "The Prophecy of the Yom YHWH in Amos 5:18-20,"in Language and Meaning: Studies in Hebrew Language and Biblical Exegesis (Oudtestamentlische Studien 19). Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1974, 113-134.

Limburg, James. "Amos 7:4: A Judgment with Fire?" Catholic Biblical Quarterly 35 (1973), 346-349.

Loewenstamm, Samuel E. "(A Remark on the Typology of the Prophetic Vision, Amos 8:1-3)" Tarbiz 34 (1964-65), 319-322.

Loretz, Oswald. "Vergleich und Kommentar in Amos 3:12,"Biblische Zeitschrift, n.f. 20 (1976). 122-125.

MacCormack, J. "Amos 7:14" Expository Times 67 (1955-56), 318.

Mackenzie, H.S. "The Plumb-Line (Amos 7:8)," Expository Times 60 (1948-49), 159.

Malamat, Abraham. "Amos 1:5 in the light of the Til Barsip Inscriptions," Bulletin of American School of Oriental Research 129 (1953), 25-26.

Marti, Karl. "Zur Komposition von Amos 1:3-2:3," in Abhandlungen zur semitischen Religionskunde und Sprachwissenschaft. Wolf Wilhelm Grafen von Baudissin zum 26, September 1917, ed. Wilhelm Frankenberg and Friedrich Kuchler (Beihefte Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 33). Giessen, 1918, 323-330.

Metzger, Martin. "Loderbar und der tell el-mghannije," Zeitschrift des Deutschen Pa/lestina-Vereins 76 (1960), 97-102.

Mittmann, Siegfried. "Gestalt und Gehalt einer prophetischen Selb-strechtfertigung (Am 3, 3-8)," Theolgogische Quartalschrift 151 (1971), 134-145.

Moeller, Henry R. "Ambiguity at Amos 3:12," The Bible Translator 15 (1964) 31-34.

Neubauer, Karl Wilhelm. "Erwagungen zu Amos 5:4-15," Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 78 (1966), 292-316.

Neuberg, Frank J. "An Unrecognized Meaning of Hebrew DO^R," Journal of Near Eastern Studies 9 (1950), 215-217.

Ouellette, Jean. "Le mur d~etain dans Amos, Vll, 7-9," Revue biblique 80 (1973), 321-331.

---. "The Shaking of the Thresholds in Amos 9:1," Hebrew Union College Annual 43 (1972), 23-27.

Paul, Shalom M. "Amos 1:3-2:3: A Concatenous Literary Pattern," Journal of Biblical Literature 90 (1971), 397-403.

Rabinowitz, Isaac. "The Crux at Amos 3:12," Vetus Testamentum 11 (1961), 228-231.

Ramsey, George W. "Amos 4:12 - A New Perspective," Journal of Biblical Literature 89 (1970), 187-191.

Reider, Joseph. "DMSQ in Amos 3:12," Journal of Biblical Literature 67 (1948), 245-248.

Rendtorff, Rolf. "Zu Amos 2:14-16," Zeitschrift fu/r die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 85 (1973), 226-227.

Richarson, H. Neil "A Critical Note on Amos 7:14," Journal of Biblical Literature 85 (1966), 89.

Rinaldi, Giovanni, "Due note ad Amos," Rivista degli Studi Orientali, 28 (1953), 149-152.

Rost, Leonhard. "Zu Amos 7:10-17," in Festgabe fur Theodor Zahn. Leipzig, 1928, 229-236.

Rudolph, Wilhelm. "Amos 4:6-12," in Wort-Gebot-Glaube. Beitra/ge zur Theologie des Alten Testaments (Walther Eichrodt zum 80. Geburtstag), ed. Hans Joachim Stoebe;(Abhandlungen zur Theologie des Alten und Neuen Testaments 59). Zu/rich: Zeingli, 1970, 27-38.

---. "Die angefochtenen Vo/lkerspruche in Amos 1 und 2," in Schalom, Studien zu Glaube und Geschichte lsraels (Alfred Jepsen zum 70. Geburstag), ed. Karl-Heinz Bernhardt;(Arbeiten zur Theologie 1/46). Stuttgart: Calwer, 1971, 45-49.

---. "Schwierige Amosstellen" in Wort und Geschichte (Festschrift fur Karl Elliger zum 70. Geburtstag), ed. Hartmut Gese and Hans Peter Ruger; Alter Orient und Altes Testament 18 (Kevelaer: Butzon & Berker; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukircherner Verlag, 1973), 157-162.

Schmid, Herbert. "Nicht Prophet bin ich, noch Prophetensohn~ ::::: Zur Erklarung von Amos 7:14a," Judaica 23 (1967), 68-74.

Schmidt, Nathaniel. "On the Text and Interpretation of Am 5:25-27," Journal of Biblical Literature 13 (1894), 1-15.

Schoville, Keith N. "A Note on the Oracles of Amos against Gaza, Tyre, and Edom," in Studies on Prophecy, (Supplementary to Vetus Testamentum 26). Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1974, 55-63.

Schult, Hermann, "Amos 7:15a und die Legitimation des Aussenseiters" in Probleme biblischer Theologie (Gerhard von Rad zum 70. Geburtstag), ed. Hans Walter Wolff. Munchen: Chr. Kaiser, 1971, 462-478.

Smythe, H.R. "The Interpretation of Amos 4:13 in St. Athanasius and Dydimus," Journal of Theological Studies, n.s.1 (1950), 158-168.

Soper, B. Kingston. "For Three Transgressions and for Four. A New Interpretation of Amos 1:3, etc," Expository Times 71 (1959-60), 86-87.

Speiser, Ephraim Avigdor. "Note on Amos 5:26," Bulletin of American School of Oriental Research 108 (1947), 5-6.

Thomas, David Winton. "Note on No~adu in Amos 3:3," Journal of Theological Studies, n.s. 7 (1956), 69-70.

Torczyner, Harry. "Dunkle Bibelstellen" in Vom Alten Testament. Karl Marti zum siebzigsten Geburtstage, ed. Karl Budde; (Beifete zur Zietschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 41). Giessen, 1925, 274-80.

Torrey, Charles Cutler. "Notes on Am 2:7; 6:10; 8:3;9:8-10," Journal of Biblical Literature 15 (1896), 151-154.

---. "On the Text of Am 5:25; 6:1,2; 7:2," Journal of Biblical Literature 13 (1894), 63.

Tucker, Gene M. "Prophetic Authenticity: A Form-Critical Study of Amos 7:10-17." Interpretation 27 (1973), 423-434.

Vischer, Wilhelm. "Perhaps the Lord will be Gracious (A Sermon)" tr. Donald G. Miller. Interpretation 13 (1959), 286-295.

Vogt, Ernest. "Waw explicative in Amos 7:14," Expository Times 68 (1956-1957), 301-302.

Vriezen, Theodorus C. "Erwagungen zu Amos 3:2, "in Archaologie und Alten Testamnet. Festschrift fur Kurt Galling, ed. Arnulf Kuschke and Ernest Kutsch. Tu/bingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1970, 255-258.

Watts, John D.W. "An Old Hymn Preserved in the Book of Amos," Journal of Near Eastern Studies 15 (1956) 33-39.

---. "Notes on the Text of Amos 5:7," Vetus Testamentum 4 (1954), 215-216.

Weiser, Artur. "Zu Amos 4:6-13," Zeitschrift fu/r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 47 (1928), 49-59.

Wurthwein, Ernest. "Amos 5:21-27." Theologische Literatur Zeitung 72 (1947), 143-152.

Youngblood, Ronald, "LQR~T in Amos 4:12," Journal of Biblical Literature 90 (1971), 98.

Zevit, Ziony. "A Misunderstanding at Bethel, Amos 7:12-17," Vetus Testamentum 25 (1975), 783-790.

Zolli, Eugenio. "Amos 4:2b," Antonianum 30 (1955), 188-189.

Zolli, Israele. "Note Esegetiche (Amos 2:7a), " Rivista degli Studi Orientali 16 (1936), 178-183.

── 唐佑之《天道圣经注释──阿摩司》